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细密机械加工的方法和优势
阅读次数:412  更新时间:2020-07-21

机械制造技术从提高精度和生产率两个方面迅速发展,就提高生产率而言,提高自动化程度是各国致力发展的方向。近年来,细密零件加工从CNC向CIMS快速发展,并在一定范围内从提高精度方面,从细密加工到超细密加工得到了应用,这也是世界主要发达国家的发展方向。

(1 )细密机械加工方法

根据加(jia)工(gong)方法的机理和(he)特点,细密加(jia)工(gong)可(ke)分为刀具切削加(jia)工(gong),磨(mo)料加(jia)工(gong),特种加(jia)工(gong)和(he)复合加(jia)工(gong)四大类

随(sui)着(zhe)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)技(ji)术的发展,出现(xian)了许多新的加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)机理(li),因(yin)此在(zai)(zai)细密零件(jian)(jian)(jian)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong),特别是(shi)在(zai)(zai)微细加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中,根据零件(jian)(jian)(jian)成(cheng)形(xing)(xing)机理(li)和特点,分(fen)为(wei)去(qu)除(chu)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)、结合加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)和变形(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)三(san)大(da)类(lei),去(qu)除(chu)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)又称为(wei)分(fen)离加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong),是(shi)利(li)用(yong)(yong)力、热电光等(deng)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)方(fang)法(fa)(fa)从工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)去(qu)除(chu)部(bu)分(fen)材(cai)料,如(ru)切削、磨削、电加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)等(deng)。结合加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)是(shi)利(li)用(yong)(yong)理(li)化(hua)(hua)方(fang)法(fa)(fa)在(zai)(zai)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)表面上附着(zhe)沉积(ji)注人渗入、熔(rong)(rong)接(jie)一层(ceng)不同材(cai)料,如(ru)电镀、气相沉积(ji)、氧(yang)化(hua)(hua)、渗碳,粘(zhan)接(jie)、熔(rong)(rong)接(jie)等(deng),变形(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)是(shi)利(li)用(yong)(yong)力、热、分(fen)子运(yun)动(dong)等(deng)手段(duan)(duan)使(shi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)产生变形(xing)(xing),改变其尺寸、形(xing)(xing)状和性能,如(ru)铸造、锻压(ya)等(deng),可(ke)见(jian)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的概念(nian)已突破(po)传统(tong)的去(qu)除(chu)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)手段(duan)(duan),具有堆积(ji)、生长、变形(xing)(xing)等(deng)特色(se),同时强(qiang)调了表面处理(li),形(xing)(xing)成(cheng)了表面加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)技(ji)术。

( 2 )细密机械加工的技术和工艺优(you)势

细(xi)密机(ji)(ji)械(xie)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)切(qie)(qie)(qie)削(xue)(xue)工(gong)艺与无房工(gong)艺相(xiang)比,切(qie)(qie)(qie)削(xue)(xue)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)优点首先在(zai)于(yu),既(ji)有很(hen)高(gao)(gao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)材(cai)料(liao)切(qie)(qie)(qie)除率(lv),又有良好的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)经济性(xing),与激光(guang)等离子加(jia)(jia)工(gong)工(gong)艺相(xiang)比,这种工(gong)艺目前(qian)只有供(gong)应(ying)很(hen)大(da)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)能(neng)(neng)量,才能(neng)(neng)达(da)到较高(gao)(gao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)材(cai)料(liao)切(qie)(qie)(qie)除率(lv)。另一方(fang)(fang)面,加(jia)(jia)工(gong)出的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)件(jian)能(neng)(neng)否达(da)到尺(chi)寸和形(xing)(xing)状(zhuang)精度要(yao)求尚存问题(ti),无屑(xie)压力加(jia)(jia)工(gong)主要(yao)用于(yu)大(da)批生(sheng)产,往(wang)往(wang)需要(yao)后序切(qie)(qie)(qie)削(xue)(xue)加(jia)(jia)工(gong),以(yi)获(huo)得合格的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)件(jian)形(xing)(xing)状(zhuang),因(yin)此机(ji)(ji)械(xie)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)主要(yao)优点是(shi)能(neng)(neng)使工(gong)件(jian)达(da)到较高(gao)(gao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)精度,细(xi)密机(ji)(ji)械(xie)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)应(ying)用广(guang)泛(fan),特别是(shi)伴随小批量生(sheng)产发(fa)展趋势,对工(gong)件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)形(xing)(xing)状(zhuang)和尺(chi)寸精度要(yao)求越(yue)来(lai)越(yue)高(gao)(gao),为细(xi)密机(ji)(ji)械(xie)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)开辟了(le)新的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)更(geng)加(jia)(jia)广(guang)泛(fan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)领域。使用车(che)床自然要(yao)进行(xing)各种车(che)削(xue)(xue)加(jia)(jia)工(gong),但(dan)还应(ying)注意到,钻削(xue)(xue)、铁削(xue)(xue)、魔削(xue)(xue)以(yi)及切(qie)(qie)(qie)步(bu)等加(jia)(jia)工(gong)过程(cheng)都可集中在(zai)一台(tai)车(che)床上(shang)完成(工(gong)序集成)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)趋势,这就(jiu)是(shi)现在(zai)发(fa)展起(qi)来(lai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)车(che)铣加(jia)(jia)工(gong)地点的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)复合机(ji)(ji)床的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)方(fang)(fang)法。

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